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Уѷ

    “ǽ࿡”ȺѧͶУҶʥգʷѧҺգ汾Ŀ¼ѧҹ͢ѧǮΰ½ķ򣬻й쵼˲ţذܣѧȡʮҵУУݲȫͳƣʡ쵼 70 δѧУ 40 ѡΪйѧԺԺʿйԺԺʿ 30

 
 
ԺԺʿ

ͬ

    ͬ (1904 1986) ѧרҡϺдɳˡҵ廪ѧѧ¹ֹҵѧҵ׼ʦ 1938 ع 22 רԱΡʦҫܹʦйѧԺоԱоΡйѧԺйѧԺԺʿйѧԺԺԺʡЭϯЭʡĽ츱ϯ¸ӰάѧҹӰʼ˺͵ߡ 1981 —— ˹Ӱɾͽʽ£ 1978 ȫѧἼشȽ߳ƺš 1986 ùҿѧȽºͽ״С g ߵIJҢ͹ͬӢ Nature ־šԶơѧķչӰϢۡԾ۽άڸӰӦáĺר


ʱ

    ʱ 1912 12 ³ʡˣѧ 1929 ҵ 1934 ҵ廪ѧѧѧѧ 1938 عȺѧѧѧУϵνڡϵΡ 1949 ϾѧϾѧԺϾѧԺڡϵΡ 1980 굱ѡΪйѧԺѧίԱ ( Ժʿ ) ѡͼо 1957 꿪ʼ " " Ĥȼо 80 ֶԻѧ޻ĤȷרоʮڹרҵڿϹ 200 ƪѧģǡйٿȫ · ѧij࣬ȫЭ߽ίԱ׫дҤ¯ѧҵѧȽ̲ģҹĻѧѧҡҡ


    ࣬ҹѧҡѧҡ 1914 4 22 ճڽʡأ 1931 ҵѧͬ꿼㽭ѧѧϵ 1935 ꡫ 1949 Ⱥ㽭ѧѧϵʦѧԺϵϺѧѧϵν̣пѧо 1944 ڡѧ־Ϸġ㰱ȩͪĺϳɡ¶ĽѧͿвŻ
    50 60 ϵͳоĵ绯ѧʣȷɵΪ -0.19±0.02 õĹϡ 1957 ꣬ィо˫ṹ缫ʵʵңҹУһ绯ѧʵҡ 60 70 θѧѧϵڼΣ˶ҼĿĿڹҵ͹еõӦá 1978 ꣬ȥμӹʹ⻯ѧ顣 80 ﮹ʡܵڹ˫߾еĵ绯ѧǶ뷴Ӧܵ⻯ѧĹע
    1981 ꣬൱ѡΪпԺѧѧίԱ 1981 βʿоʦ 1988 пԺӦûѧоѧоҵһѧίԱίԱ
    1990 εڶ޹̬ѧίԱίԱѡΪйѧڶʮ졢ڶʮһ쳣£ͬʱǹʵ绯ѧԱ 1986 ڵʮĽԴļϷﮣȲеĵ绯Ƕ뷴Ӧģ״ڹ˫ӦеǶ뷴Ӧ˴Թס 1991 10 Ƕ뷴ӦоУµĹܲϣררȨȫ̬﮶εصơ
    ¿СѧȺлѧѧ缫̶ѧͳѧȿγ̣Ϊҹ˴˲š


    ۣ 1913 Ŵѧҡˡ 1932 ҵѧ 1936 ҵ㽭ѧũҵֲϵ 1948 ζѧѧʿѧλĴʡũҵĽʿʡũҵĽѧũҵо廪ѧũѧԺڡαũҵѧڣйũҵѧԺũҵооԱйũҵѧԺооԱйѧڶ츱³³йѧԺѧίԱԺѧλίԱһũѧԱ 1980 йǵȫ˴ɿ߲ӽ " е " 1984 ҷһȽࡶѧ


Ҧ

    ҦΣʵѧѧҡ 1915 10 ³ڽճСѧҵѧѧϰ 1937 ҵ㽭ѧϵ 1949 Ӣѧѧʿѧλ 1980 굱ѡΪпԺԺʿ㽭ѧϵʦڼڣйѧԺϺϸѧ³Ϻѧ³̫ϸѧϻϯʵѧ࣬ 1990 Ρϸоࡣʵ̬֯ѧоӬϸѧоȹִѧоչ˸̬ѧ֯ѧоʵΰģͣڸΰ棬ٴ֢״ڸΰηµΰϸ̥ԭ⣬֯˿˸ΰ¡оڹ״λ˾нϺרһԵĿ˸ΰ÷ԵǺѳɹٴʾӰָΰߵơС̥ϸͷֻĵԼתоȡרҵʮƪ


̸

    ̸йѧԺԺʿѧҺӦѧҡ 1916 12 1 ճڽء 1935 ҵѧ 1939 ϺͨѧеѧԺѧѧʿѧλ 1940 ڳɶջеѧУ߼ҵйоԺоԱ 1945 ͨԣ 1946 굽ѧԺ W.R.Sears ָ£ 1949 ѧѧͺղʿѧλ֮οζѧоԱ 1954 ŵѶٴѧڣ 1956 ȺεɴѧڡߵȹоŵѧԺڡڼƸΪѧۡ (Appl.Mech.Review) ѧۡ (Mathematics Review) ͡ѧ (J.of Aeronautical Sei.) Աʡ 1965 عйѧԺѧооԱ 1980 굱ѡΪйѧԺѧѧίԱ ( Ժʿ ) 1981 ѧоѧίԱΣ 1984 굱ѡΪЭȫίԱ᳣ί⻹ιԺλίԱѧԱйѧ͡ѧͨ࣬ѧչ࣬йƼѧѧϵΣйѧѧ᳣µְ
    ̸ڳڴѧϡ嶯ѧӦѧоĺͱ 40 ƪѧ߹㷺ãܵѧĹϡϵһֲֲɢģͣй㷺Ӧã˥ɣ嶨޷غͷ · δܽ⣻ڵŻ⡢߽㡢շղ׶໥÷ȡ繫ϵĽܳɹҹѧҵķչ˲Ҫס


    ⴫õĵѧң 1918 4 2 ճݣ 1941 ҵǰѧϵ 1943 ҵǰѧϵ 1943 ˶ʿѧλ 1945 꿼ȡ 1948 ִѧѧʿѧλμϾǰйоźйѧԺоȺθоԱоԱоΡ 1991 굱ѡйѧԺѧίԱ ( Ժʿ ) ιʵϻ (IGU) ᳤йѧ³ѧࡢ¹ GeoTorunai ίһЩѧνڡʿʦ
оȺ漰áũҵ·ѡߡ滮ũҵȻֵۡغũĵصѡ滮˵عϵεչȷ棬ѧΪũҵΪηࡶйũҵۡ (1980) 滮 (1990) 1:100 йͼ (1990) йá (1994) дл񹲺͹ũҵͼ (1990) й뺣ͿԴۺϵ鱨桷 (1992) ЩгɹȺйѧԺƼһȽ ( ) ҿƼһȽ ( ) ֯ٿרѧۻᣬҹŲμӹʵᣬ 1991 걻ԴʿƼ󽱡


    ȣ 1920 4 ڽ 1938 ѧҵԺ󣬿ѧϵѧ͢ڵĸ߲ 1942 ѧҵУν̡սʤϺΪһ꽨ʦйԺ󣬾ѧ˼Ƽйֱ޽´ΣԺƾίԱܽƹ˾Σ̲Ժι̡ҵԺܽʦйѧоԺܽʦ罨軷ְ 1991 굱ѡΪйѧԺԺʿ
ʮ˴Ľʵƴ˴Ʒ磺¥йݡϺṤ̡Ȫɽ̡չݡԷɽᡢׯ̵ȣλùҿίίίͻױ֤飬йٿȫ顶԰֡й滮ίΡ 1983 йѧ³Ϊѧķչע˴ѪΪϿҵĽΪչҹҵѺЭϵ˹ףͬ־ΪҹĽҵͻĹס


лعԪ

    лعԪлѧҩﻯѧҡ 1924 4 19 ճڱУԭʡСԽʡѧҵ廪ѧѧϵ飬 1949 ҵУν̡ 1951 ꡫ 1957 пԺлѧоҩо 1961 ѧԺȻлﻯѧо񸱲ʿѧλعйѧԺϺҩо 1977 оԱ 1984 ꡫ 1987 ΪоԱҩоصʵΡ 1991 11 µѡΪйѧԺ ( ѧ ) Ժʿ
Ѫ没ҩжⶾҩԪشҩ֢ҩϳ˴ʵҩзһЩЧҩ 60 ɹغϳɾԹȻȫĽѹػһùأڵʱǹڽϳиӻѧṹȻijɹ 1982 ȻѧȽڹϼϳоΪڶϵеͻУҳ " ୰ " СʡﯵȷԺдãҩЧãϼҽҩϵӦ÷ΧڴҩơϳɡҩЧɸѡûλѧоȷγϵ


Ԫ

     ԪУ 1940 2 8 ճݡѧ 1957 ҵ 1961 ҵڻ֯ѧԺʯͻѧоԺܹʦйѧ¡йʯѧƷֻ߻ɸרҵίԱΡ 1995 굱ѡΪйѧԺԺʿ
     صзʯˮȻѧʯϳɾֲѧоܵķɸϣɹӦڹҵЩɸƷѾڹ⡣ڹⷢ 44 ƪר 35  "CHZ(SRNY) ѻ߻ " ɹȺйʯͻѧҵܹ˾һȽҷȽ 1991 Ժ²͹ҽί " ͻ׵ĹѧԱ " ƺš


ΰ

     ΰսˣ 1918 7 20 йԺԺʿ 1936 ҵʡݸУ 1940 ҵڹѧľϵȺ޺оˮйϿѧоԺ ( ǰ ) ʦԺܹʦͼʡ廪ѧľϵڡʿʦ人ѧԺ ( Ϊ人̴ѧ ) ԺоΡ
     ΰǵһԺѧλԱһʿʦΡѧࡢ " ˮо " ¿༭ѡΪȫ˴Ⱥ˶ʿʿ 26 ר 8 ڹⷢİƪ


˾ܽ

    ˾ܽУ 1930 1 ³㽭ʡ 1944 ꣭ 1947 ѧѧϰ 1952 ҵ㽭ѧϵԺ 701 ܹʦ 1988 ΪоԱ߼ʦ 1991 ܹ 1995 5 µѡΪйԺԺʿ
    ˾ܽΪҹ𽢵ʦоڴ£ÿһͽڼϾµͻƣơսϵͳشĿԹףٻȫѧάҿƼȽ


Ǯ

    Ǯߣ 1932 12 ˣйԱ 1950 ҵڽʡݸ߼ѧ 1957 걱ҵѧԺоҵαҵѧԺɿϵʦɽѹʵΡйҵѧɿϵڡʿʦԺѧλίԱѧԱͻ׵רҡйҵѧɿϵΡú̿ҵɽѹɽվվصѧƲɿ󹤳ѧƴͷˣʡͶģʡоָʦйѧչЭԽƼЭ "94 Դ " ߡ 1995 굱ѡΪйԺԺʿ
    Ǯ߽ڲɳɽѹγϵͳȫѧ˵ԲɳϸҲɺ " ֧ ת " ϵͳΪĵĹϵIJɳϸҲ " " ṹԼ϶ҲƶϲŶΪϣܴӰ졣óɹҽί۳ɹȽȻѧɹȽǮڳ 10 " ɽѹ " " úѧ " ҸߵѧУ̲Ľ " йúɳҿ " ߽ȫƼͼȽ 100 ƪ


ӻ

     ӻ 1940 7 ˣйԱ 1954 ꡫ 1957 Ͷڽʡݸ߼ѧ 1963 ҵ廪ѧϵйѧоŴԱоԱоԱоԱйԺԺʿ
     70 ιҵ " ݻ׼ " о " 䶯߽΢ŷ " ˵缫״ļ⣬ 1982 ҼֿƼɹһȽ 1983 ꡫ 1988 긺 " ǿų׼ " ⣬ɹﵽȽˮƽҪȵλо " Ʒ " ͻƳǿų˴ŹźԳ봫⣬ " ſѧժҪ " ˳ɹΪ 1987 ҪƼɹ֮һ 1992 ҿƼȽ 1987 " ӻ׼ " ⣬״ĻƷеĵų㷽 1988 õӻ SI ֵʼίԱʽΪȷƼֵ֮һ 1992 װͨΪͬװȽˮƽ 1993 귢ֲ˵ǰ谭ӻ׼׼ȷߵҪԴƳɾӹˮƽijȽǣ 1994 ӦҪҹļݲⶨӻ SI ֵΪϵѽ֮һ


Ǯϣ

    Ǯϣ 19167£ˡ1927ꡫ1928Ͷѧв1936ҵϺзѧԺͬ기ʱѧ1938ŵȹʦѧλ42Ⱥϴѧ㽭ѧڡ1951δѧιѧϵΡѧоԺְβʿͲʿʦ1955ѡйѧԺѧίԱ(Ժʿ)
    ǮҹĹѧרҡ1978ȫѧϣڿ弫޷ȶԷоĹ׺ƴ͸ջŹ̶˫˫񽱡оĽṹŻۺͷȻѧ̽ṹŻϵͳϵͳDDDU1985ҿƼѽṹѧִӼ"ѧ"
    ǮڵѧоڹϺӰ죬ǹʹ̼Эķ֮һ1983̼ѧѧۻᡣ1988걻ʱմѧԹʿѧλ1995"ѧ뼼"


Ǯΰ

    Ǯΰ 1912 10 ³ڽʡɽк 1935 ҵ廪ѧ 1942 ڼôʿѧλ 1946 廪ѧڡ񳤡У 1983 ϺҵѧУϺѧУ 1954 ΪйѧԺԺʿȫЭϯ븱ϯǮΰҹѧĵ֮һ óӦѧѧѧϢѧȡѳѧר 20 ಿڹⷢѧĶƪҪѧǰǷͳһۡǴӶ㶯㶯⡢ԭǽͺֺα ( Ǯ ) ȡ " dzǴӶȷ " ѧΪ " Ǯΰ " ԲӶϣӶΪС㶯ϳ " Ǯΰ " ĹԲӶĹԭĹгɹλùҿѧСϺеĿƼǮΰڹڷǿϣ ۵ĹѧΪԹѧ۵һشס


     (1913 ꡫ 1987 ) ˣ 1913 4 ݣ 1937 ҵϾѧϵ 1945 ︰Ӣѧ 1949 Ӣִѧѧʿѧλ 1951 عΪغͷչҹԭӺѧҵҪףҹоӼĵˡ 1980 굱ѡйѧԺѧίԱ ( Ժʿ )
    1957 ꣬ƼԱԾйѧԺоνооԱѧְڣйѧ³йѧ᳣£ѡȫڶ塢ʡЭġ츱ϯٻȫͶģʡȽƼٳƺš


     ѧ͵ˮ̬ѧҡ 1917 9 1 ճὭ⽭ 1938 ҵݶѧϵѧѧʿѧλ 1947 ҵڼôѧоԺѧʿѧλйѧԺˮооԱθˮ̬\оʵ ( صʵ ) ׽Ρҹʿѧλоʦ 1980 굱ѡΪйѧԺѧίԱѧί 40 ʾĶɴת۵Ϊ͵ȼ׵Աֻо;ѧڼ䣬оͲ󣣬֤κ˹Ĵ󣬲ͨʵ " ѧ˵ " ɡ 50 ̬鹤Ϊκ͸̬ѧṩ˴ϵͳĵһϣǺ֤Ͽ̶̬ӰҪݡ 60 ģΪ 70 ҵȲ߲ṩ̬ѧ 80 " ̬ϵͳĽṹ " оĿҹ̬ϵͳչˮ̬ѧоӵڸ̬ϵͳϵͳе֧̬͹۵ԺӪӰ졣׫дġεĺһģ롶̬ϵͳ顶ˮ⡷εһġйˮֳѧ ( ) ӳ 80 ҹˮֳͿеˮƽΪ " ƼҪ · ũҵ " ֮һɿѧ档


    йѧԺԺʿ 1916 ڽʡǨС 1930 꿼ѧҵ󣬿㽭ѧϵתѧ廪ѧϵսȺڳɳʱѧϴѧѧϰ 1941 꿼ȡ廪ѧ칫ȥѧ 1943 ڼѧԺɲʿѧλ˹ٸߵоԺͻо 1945 ȥߵоԺ͵󲣶оо 1948 صȺ˶ѧԭӺо˹ѧꡣ 1951 ص֮һֱαϵڣοѧԺоо뱱ƸоԱ 1957 걻Ī˹ԭӺоꡣ 1980 걱о


ǮԪ

    ǮԪ 1917 9 19 ڳţ߷ӿѧҡ 1934 ѧ ( ) Ʊҵ㽭ѧѧϵѧϰ 1944 1947 ˹ѧѧϵޡعŴѧ㽭ѧڡ 1956 йѧԺѧо ( ) оԱ 1981 ꡫ 1985 йѧ³йѧ߷ѧίԱΡйѧԺԺʿʴ⼰ӦûѧЭ (IUPAC) ߷ѧڶίԱίԱڶίԱ IV.2.1 鶫оϯ̫ƽ߷Э (PPF) ¡ȫ塢߽ȫЭίԱ
    ҹ߷ѧ߷оѧĴˡ 1956 йѧԺѧȽ 1978 ȫѧά 1980 ҷȽ 1989 йѧԺȻѧһȽ 1991 걻ΪйѧԺȻѧȽ쵼оľ۱ϩ˿ĸߵ 14 촴췢¼ʲʽ³ 35 ʷ˹ظ󽱼ƽ
лǨʡۺϻṹӻȷͻס 1988 ȻѧȽ 1987 1993 ֱйѧԺȻѧһȽ߷̬о 1992 ʵǼƻĿĿϯѧҡ
    70 ڸ߷ӺлоѧзdzԾѧιιѧĹʹίԱԱ
ڿйжԹشף 1994 ǽܳѧո߷ѧеشãձ߷ѧ 1995 һʽ
1940 ڹѧڿо 230 ƪ鼮רʮƪרᣬר


    ˣѧҡ 1923 ڽʡС 1928 ѧʵСѧ飬 1934 ѧв 1946 ѧϵҵѧʿѧλУν̡ 1946 9 Ͼѧϵ̣ 1952 νʦ 1963 θڣ 1978 Ϊڣβʿʦ 1979 굱ѡΪйѧԺѧίԱ 1980 Ͼѧо 1984 1988 걻ΪϾѧоԺһԺ 1985 ιҹ΢ṹʵμѧίԱΣ 1992 йѧԺѧί渱Ρ 1993 굱ѡΪѧԺԺʿǵ졢߽졢ڰ˽ȫڽ͵Ľѧй׿ԽסĿѧоɹĿѧ鼰أеѳΪнϸ֪ѧߣеǽѧͿйеĹǸɣǰѧƵĿߡ


    뿵 1920 9 £ˡͶѧ 1944 ҵѧϵ 1945 1951 Ⱥڸѧ廪ѧϵѧϵν̡ 1951 תйѧԺѧоѧϰ 1957 йѧԺ㼼о 1978 йѧԺΡ 1980 굱ѡΪйѧԺѧίԱ ( Ժʿ )
    뿵ҹѧңҹѧͿѧ̼ѧƵĵߺѧͷˣѧо˽ܳĹסǡѧֵӦáѧ࣬ȫѧ³ʼѧᴴʼ£ȺձӦѧ־ıίڹй㷺Ӱ졣
    뿵ڷܹɾ׿ 1959 걻ΪȫȽߣ 1979 걻ΪȫͶģ 1965 굱ѡΪȫڿѧϵĹףȺ 1978 ȫѧشɹȫȻѧͿƼ


ر

    رУ 1937 1953 ѧҵ뱱ѧϵпԺо 1991 걻ѡΪѧίԱΪпԺԺʿ
    ܹ١°ֵ˺ϵͳذӳͳƸֺϣչƽͷƽͳƵı·ֺӦõٽ綯ѧ⡢ˡӡӵƽ̬ȶش⡣ԤԵŲڴֲڽ洫ľ򻯡׼һάлϵͳзԪԾǨۣйѧԺƼһȽ


    ѧңѧԺԺʿпԺ⼮Ժʿ 1926 Ϻԭݡ 1938 -1941 Ͷڶ⸽У 1952 궫⸽вѧв 1943 -1944 Ͷ㽭ѧ 1945 תѧѧϵ 1946 꾭ƼһȽѧ죬Ϊ֥Ӹѧ · ܵѧѧ 1950 ѧʿѧλ 1956 ΪױǴѧڡ 1954 귢ӳе " ģ " ۡ 1956 ϷģƷغ㶨ɣ治غԭ 1957 4 £ 2 ˻˹̹ѧͬ׻ŵѧ
    ҪУ 1949 M· ɭ˹ʷúм䲣ɫڵĴڡ 1951 ˮѧжάռû 1952 D· ˹омӵĹ죬ͬͳй · - Բ 1957 R· º÷ CP غʱ䲻ݵĿԣͬ΢ۡ 1959 оӲɫķ˶ۣо H ij˹סֺͬ΢ӵã˺ 20 ⷽʵ۹ķ 1962 о˴ʸӵ໥õIJԡ 1964 M· 觶оޣֹĹУⷢɢȫ⡣ֳ - 觶ľµĹһ𣬳 KLN 60 ˳ۡ 70 о CP Էȱ⣬ַֺо˷ԹӣǿӽṹĹӴģۣɫյ " ɫ鳣 " ĸ 70 ں 80 ·⡢淶ʱΪѧȷ濪չ


     1927 12 ڽˡ 1942 ꡫ 1945 Ͷѧ 1951 ҵйžҽѧθУѧԭҽѧڡΡϵΡУУεҽѧѧίԱϯܺڲרԱлѧίԱԺѧλίԱѧԱ˽ȫЭίԱйԺԺʿ
    ¾ҽ͹ 45 ֽ꣬ˣѧ鼰ȫȫIJʿожƸΪڡڣΪȫʦڷԭҽѧʹҽѧо 14 βμҹ飬ҹһҪԱΪġ˼ԭҽѧ͹һս˲ѧҽѧٿȫ顶սѧ־ִ͡ѧĸࣻҿƼһȽ 1 ӿƼһȽ 2 Ƚ 3 ΪȫڿƼȽߡ쵼ķԭҽѧѧƱΪصѧƣ齨ĿǰΨһĸʵұ׼Ϊȫصʵҡ


ɳ

    ɳ֣ 1930 5 ˡ 1949 ѧҵ 1952 Ϻͨѧҵͬôѧ̡ 1957 Ī˹ƹ·ѧԺ񸱲ʿѧλ 1957 عڽͨ·ѧо¹··ѧо͹·ʩȺ 12 о⣬ 80 3 صƼĿֵ·ۡѹʵ׼Բܺơʩơ·ṹơ·ͽṹͿɿƵȿҪɹഴ¡԰·ѷγԭͻۺͼѴʩ԰·ĹдΪ춨ɹйع淶ΪƼɹѸתΪͻףɹӦγҹߵȼ··޽ģʽþ޴󾭼Ч档ڼ 1968 1979 ȺǷҹԮ⹫·̵IJ衢ʩͿСԮ⹫·; 10 ٹ·ƺʩжֱӹס 14 ר 70 ƪġ 1995 굱ѡΪйԺԺʿ


޾

    ޾йרҡ 1936 2 9 ϺУ漮㽭ƽ 1954 ӽʡݸ߼ѧҵ󣬱ѡɵѧϰ 1960 ҵյӰѧԺӰƬ켰ϴӡӹϵйֿƬ˾оɫƬιʦڼ߼ʦڰ˽ȫ˴
     1960 ҵعһֱ¸йо 60 ¹ƬоƳʱ 850 ⽺Ƭȣ˹ڿհס " " ڼ䣬 " " Ŀ "5212 ͲɫӰƬ " ơڽɫй ֮ڵ໥Լìܹϵ棬˲ṹ˫ṹ˼롣ڲһԵļ·ߣ 1993 ɹƳӽ 80 ĩȽˮƽֿ GBR100 ʾ " " ҼصĿ "ISO100 Ȳɫ "
    ڸйоرڹɫƺ²ƷĹף 1988 Ҽͻרҳƺţ 1991 ֤飬 1992 񻯹ȫش׵רҳƺźͺӱʡͶģƺţ 1993 лȫܹȫƼ߳ƺź " һͶ " 1994 굱ѡΪйԺԺʿ


Ҧ

    Ҧ 1939 1 29 ճϺ 1957 ҵڽʡѧ 1997 굱ѡΪйѧԺԺʿѧίԱίԱУѧλίԱίԱѧԺԺѧԺѧλίԱΡְȫЭίԱЭϯٽί뵳ίѯίԱѧְйѧѧ£רҵίԱḱΣѧרҵίԱίԱйѧӷֻ£“⼼صʵ”ѧѧίԱίԱ“Ϲصʵ”ѧϿѧѧίԱίԱٻҼͻ׵ĿƼרңصģȫƼߣҽίίȽƼߵƺšоĿ 30  260 ƪȺٻҷȽҿίƼȽΣпԺصȽӿƼһȽ│ʲ𽱼һʿѫ£ˣƼȽѧƼһȽ


ɭԪ

    ɭԪ 1930 ꣬ˡ 1945 꿼ʡѧв 1949 꿼Ͼѧϵ 1960 기ǰĪ˹ɫߵȹҵѧԺ죬񸱲ʿѧλҺۺоҺۺоҺȴٽ紫ȼ㷽ͷڻٽ㷽оҹҺҺҪ֮һڸ߿Ƽػϵͳĸоػ֤ȷ˴׿гЧǰհԹΪҹҵĽһչ˹ס 1995 ġ¼һ档 1995 굱ѡΪйѧԺԺʿ


Ԫ

    Ԫ壬ԭʡ 1919 9 15 աͶѧ 1941 1943 ֱѧʿ˶ʿѧλ죬 1948 üѧԺʿѧλҪºպоСѧѧѧۡ 60 Ժתѧо 281 ƪѧģСѧ֯ѧԡѪҺѭִ̼ѧݴѧʮ꣬ҲǹѧѧͨѧջѧԺպѧžҽԺҽԺпԺѧȵλڣҲ̨оԺҿѧԺҹ̿ѧԺҽѧѧԺԺʿ ASME ľ˿ƽ ASCE Ž ISB ҶϽΪѧķ֮һ 1994 걻ѡΪйѧԺԺʿ


    䣬 1919 3 15 ճڽʡС 1932 1935 Ͷѧ 1941 ҵͬôѧ 1949 նɴѧʿѧλնɴѧڣйѧԺооԱ뵼о 109 ҹ뵼幤ҵĿ֮һйѧԺ뵼ооԱ΢ΣԺ쵼Сģɵ鳤ѧ廪ѧְڣйѧ뵼뼯ɼѧΡ 1958 ꣬ィҹһܵпԺ 109 Ƴҹһ൥͵һֻྦྷܣֽȫ뵼ģƳɹҹһֻ뵼ͼ쵼Ƴɴģɵ· 4 ǧλ̬뵼ѧ 40 ƪ쵼ƴģɵ· 81 пԺƼɹ 85 пԺƼ 87 ҿƼڰ뵼巽ͻף 1979 걻ԺȫͶģƺš 1980 굱ѡΪйѧԺԺʿ


׼ѵ

    ׼ѵ 1918-1997 1918 7 25 ճڹʡ 1934 1937 Ͷѧ 1937 꿼ѧ 1944 기죬 1948 ʿѧλ 1948 굽 1955 䣬ν Univ.of Wiscnsin,Univ.of British Colubia,Colorado A & M Univ. of Nance State Univ.of lowa. ֱ 1956 굽 Univ.of Michigan, Ű 1958 -1959 ӢŴѧ 1970 -1971 ڷѧ Grenoble ⣬һֱЪν̡ 1968 ЪѧףУ 150 ꣬ѡΪͻڣ“ľƽܳ”ͷΡ 1970 걻ѡΪоԺԺʿ 1980 걻ѡΪҹԺԺʿ


¼

    ¼ˣ 1916 6 ڽʡأ 1933 1936 ͶѧвƵڶ졣 1940 6 ±ҵѧѧϵѧѧʿѧλҵȺڴѧ̡ʦ͹ʦְ 1947 기ѧ 1948 ѧѧ˶ʿѧλ 1950 9 »Ŵѧʿѧλͬ 10 £źȻعμ彨衣عһֱ»ƺͿ 1956 ȺλѧҵԺܹʦԺԺܹʦ 1982 αѧԺԺֱѧ 1985 λѧҵίԱίԱΡüίԱ᳣ίԱ 1989 걻й̽ƴʦٳƺţ 1990 Ժ䷢֤飬ܹ 1993 굱ѡΪйѧԺԺʿ


У

        ǰ ԺչоĸΡ
ڣꣷ£ˡꣳ¼й, ꣹²μӹҵѧԺϵѧѧ߼ʦ
꿼뽭ʡݸ߼ѧ꣹꣹£ѧԺϵѧϰ꣹꣱£У䡣꣱꣸ʡʤʳֹ꣹ꣵʡʤʳֳָزư츱ΡóίǡꣶꣲйʡʤίίظίḱΡسꣳ꣸йʡʤίǡسس꣸ꣷйʡίίԱרԱ꣸꣹ʡʡ꣹꣱βԱ꣱ꣳβ鸱ǡꣳ꣱ιԺ鳤ص鸱ǡ꣱ε߽йίί꣱ڱ˴ʮ쳣ίڶʮλϱΪигꣲ±ƸΪھŽ챱й᳤ꣵαй滮ίԱḱΡꣶµѡΪйʮ᳤꣱µѡΪйڰ˽챱ίίǡ꣱ٴεѡΪигꣴꣵι˰ܾ־ֳꣳʮȫ˴һλϱΪ꣸£գʮȫ˴ίڶʮŴλȥIJְΪԺչоĸΣ 
йʮίԱʮίԱ


Ԭΰ

    ڣꣷ£ˡйҵϾѧԺ 

     꿼뽭ʡѧʡӡѡӣۺ󣬳ιŮιίΣȫܸϯйίḱϯйЭϯйίᷴ˷ܼίԱΡꣶµѡΪйЭϯͬ걻ϾѧԺƸΪڡ꣹µѡΪйίḱϯͬ꣱µѡΪϻϯ꣹£йѧѧ»³һִиϯꣴ£ڰĴǿеĵڣ»ϵѡΪϯꣶ£̩ȾеϻرϣѡΪϻϯꣷ£ڹϻڶʮϱȷΪ¡꣹ڵʮϯιֳָܾξֳ 2004129գжιܾ־ֳ

    йʮ졢ʮίԱʮʮĽ졢ʮίԱ


    ϣ 1911 ˡ 1930 ҵڶѧѧϵ 1931 ꡫ 1933 ѧʷԱлְҵǡܸ¡ 1945 뷢֯йᣬγ¡ 1949 ϯйЭ̻һȫ顣Ժ鳤²ڶȫ˴ίḱ鳤Ժڰ˰칫ҸΣлְҵܸ¡³ȫĽ츱ίԱ͵츱ϯ񽨵һ븱ίԱĽ븱ϯϯġȫЭ鳤ߡ˽ȫ˴ίίԱǵһȫ˴ڶȫЭί


ع

    ع棬 1934 9 24 ڱɽʡء 1949 1950 ꣬Ͷѧ 1950 12 ²θɡ 1954 8 ±ҵڱѧУӢϵ 1954 8 1963 2 ⽻鱨˾Ϊ˾Ա 1963 2 1969 7 ҹפʹԱء 1971 궬 1980 ⽻˾ 1980 1984 ҹפʹһءޣ˾ 1984 1988 ⽻˾˾ 1988 1991 ҹפɼ£ʹΣ 1991 1995 11 ҹפӢʹ 1996 1997 6 츱Ρ 1997 7 ³⽻פرԱ


ƽ

    ƽ 1934 3 㽭ơ 1948 Ŀѧв 1950 12 ±μӾ¸ɲѧУ 1951 1 µ⽻ѧУӢϵѧϰ 1954 9 ±ҵ󣬱⽻漴פʹݹһֱ⽻ϵͳȺŷ˾˾칫Һפʹְ 1985 5 ҹפϹŲޡ 1987 6 µعںŷ˾βޡ 1988 12 ±¹쵼С칫Һ͹Ժ°칫о鳤 1993 4 1996 10 ҹפǴʹ泣פϹ滮ͳפϹ˾Ĵ 1997 2 ҹϹЭḱ᳤ܸ¡ 2000 4 µѡΪϹЭϻִίḱϯ


Ӧ¹

    Ӧ¹ 1934 1 ڽʡɽ 1946 1950 ѧв͸вѧϰ 1950 12 ±μӾ¸ɲѧУ 1 ±䵽ѧУϵѧϰ 1954 7 1959 11 Ⱥ⽻鱨˾ŷ˾Ƿ˾ 1959 11 1963 8 ¾ְҹפʹݡ 1963 9 1970 1 ⽻˾οԱ 1970 1 1978 5 ҹפʹԱء 1978 6 1982 7 ⽻DZ˾Ⱥθ 1982 9 1983 7 뵳Уμӵѵ 1983 7 1987 7 ⽻DZ˾δ˾ 1987 9 1991 8 ҹפͻ˹ʹ 1990 7 ¼ҹפ˹̹ʹ 1991 10 1993 11 ҹפ͹ʹ 1994 2 1998 6 ҹפŲʹ


֣ҫ

    ֣ҫģ 1933 1 23 ճˡ 1948 7 ¿ѧв 1950 12 £ӦԮ٣μӾ¸ɲѧУ 1954 7 ±ҵڱѧУѧǰӢϵ 1954 9 1961 1 ҹפӢ촦ԱְԱ 1961 3 1963 11 ŷ˾Ա 1963 12 1967 1 ҹפӢ촦Ա 1972 12 1979 1 ҹפӢʹءء 1979 3 1982 11 ŷ˾ 1983 1 1984 12 ҹפӢʹޡ 1985 4 1988 5 ҹפͲΤʹ 1988 7 1991 10 η˾ 1991 11 1997 1 ҹפʹפʹ


ҫ

    ҫ 1933 1 3 ڽʡС 1946 9 1950 12 ¾Ͷѧв 1950 12 ²μӾ¸ɲѧУ 1951 1 1953 8 ڱѧУѧǰѧϰ 1953 9 1956 7 ڵ־͹˼ѧѧϰնѧ 1956 9 1963 10 ڰйפ־͹ʹݹְԱԱ 1963 11 1981 7 ڱ⽻ŷ˾οԱ˾ 1966 11 1969 10 £ 1977 1978 ꣬ijëѡңμë¼ëѡ 1-5 ĵİ淭Ͷ幤ε鳤 1969 1979 ꣬쵼Ҫķ롣 1982 10 1987 2 ڲйפ־͹ʹޡʹβޡ 1987 3 1989 10 ⽻ŷ˾˾ 1989 11 1994 3 ҹפµʹ


    ۣ 1932 7 ʡ⽭ˡ 1946 1950 ѧв͸вѧϰ 1950 12 ±μӾ¸ɲѧУͬ뱱ѧУӢϵѧϰ 1954 8 1956 8 £⽻鱨˾ 1956 1961 ְҹפǴʹݡ 1961 1964 ְ⽻DZ˾ 1964 1969 ҹפɣͶʹݸ¡ 1971 1978 ҹפ̹ɣǴʹ顣 1978 1982 Ⱥ⽻˾ 1982 1984 ҹפڸɴʹ 1988 1992 ҹפǴʹ


½

    ½䣬У 1931 8 ϺС 1945 1948 ľͶѧв 1950 12 ²μӿԮ¸ɲѧУѧУѧϰ 1954 ҵڱѧУ⽻󼴱ҹפӢ촦ְԱֱ 1962 6 ¡ 1962 8 1965 3 ⽻οԱ 1969 10 1971 10 ְ⽻Ƿ˾ 1971 10 1977 11 ҹפ˴ʹءء 1978 3 1982 9 ⽻˾θԱ 1982 9 1984 3 ҹפϹһء 1984 3 1986 2 ҹפǴʹһءޡ 1986 6 1987 9 ⽻˾βޡ 1987 9 1990 4 ҹפͰͶ˹ʹפϺͰͲԼɴʹ 1992 5 ݡ


    ⣬ 1924 10 ʡˡ 1939 1941 ꣬Ͷѧһ߶ 1946 ꣬Ϻѧ⽻ϵҵ
    1946 4 µձ༭ҰսҽУԱ 1948 10 λҰս»ǰ߷ߡ 1951 10 й־Ը»ߡ 1954 5 »ع»ʲ༭ 1956 5 »פͻ˹̹ɡǡŰϯߡ 1965 7 »ʲ 1969 12 1972 10 »פ¹ϯߣΪٽйͬ¹⽻ϵãܵëϯӼ
    1972 10 µ⽻ҹפ¹ʹݲޡʹ 1977 1 Ρ졷־ܱ༭ 1978 5 ⽻ 1980 9 ҹפµʹפάҲϹ֯ʹ 1986 11 ⽻о߽ȫЭίԱ˽ȫ˴ 1988 9 ݡ
СͨѶפġ֮µӼߵʹ֮µȡ


Ҷʥ

    Ҷʥգ 1894 ꣭ 1988 ܾ꣩ˡңңҺҡ 1911 ҵѧʱУΪݹһѧãСѧѧʦ 1921 ȴѧоᡣ 1923 ӡα༭ 1930 뿪ꡣȺࡶѧС˵±꡷¿־ССѧĿα 1931 μ֯ս練ۿմˡսڼ䣬ϷѧУѧ人ѧνֿ̣༭ 1949 λ̿ίԱΡͬ 9 ³ϯйЭ̻һȫ顣𳤣糤ʣʷݹݳ븱ϯ߽ϯȫЭϯǵһĽȫ˴ȫ˴ίһȫЭίСҶʥļ


     1918 1 ڽݡ 1931 ꣭ 1934 ͶѧʦƣͶڱѧ 1938 1 人й 30 ĩ 40 ͱ༭ֱͬʱйĻһЩط쵼Ĺл񹲺͹й鳤йоҸΡ־ܱ༭ " Ļ " ȺһְֹͣйоҸΡй뵳ʷоΣ 1985 йѧԺԺǵġȫ᳣ίԱίԱ (1975 1983) ʮйίԱ (1982 1987) ߡ˽йЭ̻ȫίԱḱϯ (1988 ) йʷѧϯųԱڵйʷо᳤ɽоѧ᳤ 1990 10 ƸΪŷ޿ѧԺԺʿ
    дԵУ۹йΡ (1948) ѻƬս˶ ( 1981) ࡶйʮ꡷ (1991) ļռ 1935 1948 1979 1995 Ҫ¡۹йΡһȺԭԭ¹硢ձ˸ùֵ뱾ڱӢ뱾ͳ뱾ѻƬս˶һ鷢 300 ᣬڱӢ뱾ҪºдԵѱԼ 300 ֵġȫ顷 (1997 )


½ķ

    ½ķ 1928 ũ³£ 3 23 գڽʡ̩ءսʤݣոѧбҵձμӹ 1949 ֶɽصݣż߰ꡣ
ʮڿʼ½ķСеΪĿʼдС˵СƪΪйѧеν " Сѧ " ʮ֪ĶƪС˵Сʮ֪ĶƪС˵ʦʮ֪ĶƪС˵ΧǽƪС˵ʳҡʮǰûƷΪɺĻͣʮ꣬·Ͷȥ
1976 Ժ½ķĸ߷ڣдʮֵжƪĴλȫСƪС˵ԼĶֽͬʱѡΪĽйЭĸϯʡЭϯΡ־ࡣ


 
 
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